Vivid dreaming occurs in which stage of sleep:
Other characteristics of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are deep sleep (the patient cannot be awakened easily), depressed muscle tone, and possibly irregular heart and respiratory rates. This is the stage associated with dreaming. Interestingly, the EEG is similar to an awake individual, but the skeletal muscles are atonic and without movement. The exception is the eye and diaphragmatic breathing muscles, which remain active. The breathing rate is altered though, being more erratic and irregular. This stage usually starts 90 minutes after you fall asleep, and each of your REM cycles gets longer throughout the night. The first period typically lasts 10 minutes, and the final one can last up to an hour. Option A: Non-REM sleep is a deep, restful sleep without dreaming. This is the lightest stage of sleep and starts when more than 50% of the alpha waves are replaced with low-amplitude mixed-frequency (LAMF) activity. There is muscle tone present in the skeletal muscle and breathing tends to occur at a regular rate. This stage tends to last 1 to 5 minutes, consisting of around 5% of the total cycle. Option C: This stage represents deeper sleep as your heart rate and body temperature drop. It is characterized by the presence of sleep spindles, K-complexes, or both. These sleep spindles will activate the superior temporal gyri, anterior cingulate, insular cortices, and the thalamus. The K-complexes show a transition into a deeper sleep. Stage 2 sleep lasts around 25 minutes in the initial cycle and lengthens with each successive cycle, eventually consisting of about 50% of total sleep. Option D: Delta stage, or slow-wave sleep, occurs during non-REM Stages III and IV and is often equated with quiet sleep. This is considered the deepest stage of sleep and is characterized by a much slower frequency with high amplitude signals known as delta waves. This stage is the most difficult to awaken from, and for some people, even loud noises (over 100 decibels) will not awaken them. As people get older, they tend to spend less time in this slow, delta wave sleep and more time stage N2 sleep. This is the stage when the body repairs and regrows its tissues, builds bone and muscle, and strengthens the immune system.
The best way to decrease the risk of transferring pathogens to a patient when removing contaminated gloves is to:
Turning the gloves inside out while removing them keeps all contaminants inside the gloves. They should then be placed in a plastic bag with soiled dressings and discarded in a soiled utility room garbage pail (double bagged). The other choices can spread pathogens within the environment. Option A: They should also only be worn once, being changed between patients or between treatment areas on the same patient. For situations where there is a high risk of contamination or infection, NHS Professionals advise wearing two sets of gloves, known as ‘double gloving’. Option B: Grasp the outside of one glove at the wrist. Do not touch the bare skin. Peel the glove away from the body, pulling it inside out. Hold the glove that was just removed in a gloved hand. Option D: Peel off the second glove by putting the fingers inside the glove at the top of the wrist. Turn the second glove inside out while pulling it away from the body, leaving the first glove inside the second.
Kubler-Ross’s five successive stages of death and dying are:
Kubler-Ross’s five successive stages of death and dying are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. The patient may move back and forth through the different stages as he and his family members react to the process of dying, but he usually goes through all of these stages to reach acceptance. Option A: Denial is a common defense mechanism used to protect oneself from the hardship of considering an upsetting reality. Kubler-Ross noted that after the initial shock of receiving a terminal diagnosis, patients would often reject the reality of the new information. Patients may directly deny the diagnosis, attribute it to faulty tests or an unqualified physician, or simply avoid the topic in conversation. Option B: Anger, as Kubler-Ross pointed out, is commonly experienced and expressed by patients as they concede the reality of a terminal illness. It may be directed, as with blame of medical providers for inadequately preventing the illness, of family members for contributing to risks of not being sufficiently supportive, or of spiritual providers or higher powers for the diagnosis’ injustice. Option D: Bargaining typically manifests as patients seek some measure of control over their illness. The negotiation could be verbalized or internal and could be medical, social, or religious. The patients’ proffered bargains could be rational, such as a commitment to adhere to treatment recommendations or accept help from their caregivers, or could represent more magical thinking, such as with efforts to appease misattributed guilt they may feel is responsible for their diagnosis. Depression is perhaps the most immediately understandable of Kubler-Ross’s stages and patients experience it with unsurprising symptoms such as sadness, fatigue, and anhedonia. Acceptance describes recognizing the reality of a difficult diagnosis while no longer protesting or struggling against it. Patients may choose to focus on enjoying the time they have left and reflecting on their memories.
Which of the following is the nurse’s legal responsibility when applying restraints:
When applying restraints, the nurse must document the type of behavior that prompted her to use them, document the type of restraints used, and obtain a physician’s written order for the restraints. Nurses are accountable for providing, facilitating, advocating and promoting the best possible patient care and to take action when patient safety and well-being are compromised, including when deciding to apply restraints. Option A: Restraint use should be continually assessed by the health care team and reduced or discontinued as soon as possible. After the discontinuing restraints, interprofessional teams should debrief with the patient, patient’s family, or substitute decision maker to discuss intervention, previous interventions and alternatives to restraints. Option B: There are three types of restraints: physical, chemical and environmental. Physical restraints limit a patient’s movement. Chemical restraints are any form of psychoactive medication used not to treat illness, but to intentionally inhibit a particular behaviour or movement. Environmental restraints control a patient’s mobility. Option C: With any intervention, such as restraint use, nurses need to ensure they actively involve the patient, patient’s family, substitute decision-makers and the broader health care team. Nurses are also accountable for documenting nursing care provided, including assessment, planning, intervention and evaluation. In emergency situations, nurses may apply restraints without consent when a serious threat of harm to the patient or others exists and only after all alternative interventions were unsuccessful.
A nurse caring for a patient with an infectious disease who requires isolation should refers to guidelines published by the:
The Center of Disease Control (CDC) publishes and frequently updates guidelines on caring for patients who require isolation. CDC is responsible for controlling the introduction and spread of infectious diseases, and provides consultation and assistance to other nations and international agencies to assist in improving their disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion activities. Option A: The National League of Nursing’s (NLN’s) major function is accrediting nursing education programs in the United States. The NLN, the premier organization for nurse educators, offers professional development, teaching resources, research grants, testing services, and public policy initiatives to its 40,000 individual and 1,200 institutional members, comprising nursing education programs across higher education and health care. Option C: The American Medical Association (AMA) is a national organization of physicians. American Medical Association (AMA), organization of American physicians, the objective of which is “to promote the science and art of medicine and the betterment of public health.” It was founded in Philadelphia in 1847 by 250 delegates representing more than 40 medical societies and 28 colleges. Option D: The American Nurses’ Association (ANA) is a national organization of registered nurses. ANA guides the profession on issues of nursing practice, health policy, and social concerns that impact patient wellbeing. Through their position statements, ANA amplifies the voice of nurses and educates both consumers and policymakers.
Which of the following symptoms is the best indicator of imminent death?
Fixed, dilated pupils are a sign of imminent death. Death is a part of natural life; however, society is notorious for being uncomfortable with death and dying as a topic on the whole. Many caregivers experience a level of burden from their duties during end-of-life care. This burden is multi-faceted and may include performing medical tasks, communicating with providers, decision-making and possibly anticipating the grief of impending loss. Option A: Pulse becomes weak but rapid. It is important to identify how to know death has occurred and to educate the family of a patient who may be actively dying. This is especially important if the patient is choosing to die at home. Option B: Muscles become weak and atonic. It is imperative that patients and families have access to the care and support they require when entering a terminal phase of life. This phase is different for each patient, and the needs may differ for each patient and family, but it is vital for healthcare providers to provide care and support in a way that respects the patient’s dignity and autonomous wishes. Option D: In the late stages, an altered respiratory pattern which can be periods of apnea alternated with hyperpnea or irregular breathing can be noticed.
After having an I.V. line in place for 72 hours, a patient complains of tenderness, burning, and swelling. Assessment of the I.V. site reveals that it is warm and erythematous. This usually indicates:
Tenderness, warmth, swelling, and, in some instances, a burning sensation are signs and symptoms of phlebitis. Superficial phlebitis affects veins on the skin surface. The condition is rarely serious and, with proper care, usually resolves rapidly. Sometimes people with superficial phlebitis also get deep vein thrombophlebitis, so a medical evaluation is necessary. Option A: Infection is less likely because no drainage or fever is present. Call a health care provider if there are signs and symptoms of swelling, pain, and inflamed superficial veins on the arms or legs. If the client is not better in a week or two or if it gets any worse, he or she should get reevaluated to make sure they don’t have a more serious condition. Option B: Infiltration would result in swelling and pallor, not erythema, near the insertion site. In phlebitis, there is usually a slow onset of a tender red area along the superficial veins on the skin. A long, thin red area may be seen as the inflammation follows a superficial vein. This area may feel hard, warm, and tender. The skin around the vein may be itchy and swollen. The area may begin to throb or burn. Option D: The patient has no evidence of bleeding. Injury to a vein increases the risk of forming a blood clot. Sometimes clots occur without an injury.
When bathing a patient’s extremities, the nurse should use long, firm strokes from the distal to the proximal areas. This technique:
Washing from distal to proximal areas stimulates venous blood flow, thereby preventing venous stasis. Good personal hygiene is essential for skin health but it also has an important role in maintaining self-esteem and quality of life. Supporting patients to maintain personal hygiene is a fundamental aspect of nursing care. Option A: The nurse can assess the patient’s condition throughout the bath. Helping patients to wash and dress is frequently delegated to junior staff, but time spent attending to a patient’s hygiene needs is a valuable opportunity for nurses to carry out a holistic assessment (Dougherty and Lister, 2015; Burns and Day, 2012). It also allows time to address any concerns patients have and provides a valuable opportunity to assess the condition of their skin. Option B: The nurse should feel no strain while bathing the patient. Nurses should also discuss with patients any religious and cultural issues relating to personal care (Dougherty and Lister, 2015). For example, ideally, Muslim patients should be cared for by a nurse of the same gender (Rassool, 2015), and Hindus may wish to wash before prayer (Dougherty and Lister, 2015). Option D: It improves circulation but does not result in vasoconstriction. Bed bathing is not as effective as showering or bathing and should only be undertaken when there is no alternative (Dougherty and Lister, 2015). If a bed bath is required, it is important to offer patients the opportunity to participate in their own care, which helps to maintain their independence, self-esteem and dignity.
The physician’s order reads “Administer 1 g cefazolin sodium (Ancef) in 150 ml of normal saline solution in 60 minutes.” What is the flow rate if the drop factor is 10 gtt = 1 ml:
When you have an order for an IV infusion, it is the nurse’s responsibility to make sure the fluid will infuse at the prescribed rate. IV fluids may be infused by gravity using a manual roller clamp or dial-a-flow, or infused using an infusion pump. Regardless of the method, it is important to know how to calculate the correct IV flow rate. Option B: When calculating the flow rate, determine which IV tubing you will be using, microdrip or macrodrip, so you can use the proper drop factor in your calculations. The drop factor is the number of drops in one mL of solution, and is printed on the IV tubing package. Option C: Macrodrip and microdrip refers to the diameter of the needle where the drop enters the drip chamber. Macrodrip tubing delivers 10 to 20 gtts/mL and is used to infuse large volumes or to infuse fluids quickly. Microdrip tubing delivers 60 gtts/mL and is used for small or very precise amounts of fluid, as with neonates or pediatric patients. Option D: If you simply need to figure out the mL per hour to infuse, take the total volume in mL, divided by the total time in hours, to equal the mL per hour
Which is the correct procedure for collecting a sputum specimen for culture and sensitivity testing:
Placing the specimen in a sterile container ensures that it will not become contaminated. A sputum specimen is obtained for culture to identify the microorganism responsible for lung infections; identify cancer cells shed by lung tumors; or aid in the diagnosis and management of occupational lung diseases. The other answers are incorrect because they do not mention sterility and because antiseptic mouthwash could destroy the organism to be cultured (before sputum collection, the patient may use only tap water for nursing the mouth). Option A: Using the sterile collection container provided, instruct the patient to take three deep breaths, then force a deep cough and expectorate into a sterile screw-top container. To prevent contamination by particles in the air, keep the container closed until the patient is ready to spit into it. Option B: Ten to 15 ml of sputum is typically needed for laboratory analysis. A specimen will be rejected by the laboratory if it contains excessive numbers of epithelial cells from the mouth or throat or if it fails to show adequate numbers of neutrophils on gram staining. If the patient cannot cough up a specimen, the respiratory therapist can use sputum induction techniques such as heated aerosol (nebulization), followed in some instances by postural drainage and percussion. Option D: Don’t allow the patient to brush his teeth or use mouthwash. Doing so could kill bacteria in the sputum, rendering it useless. For best results, obtain the sample first thing in the morning. If it can’t be obtained before the patient has breakfast, though, wait at least an hour after he’s eaten before trying. Before beginning, describe the procedure to him.
To ensure homogenization when diluting powdered medication in a vial, the nurse should:
Gently rolling a sealed vial between the palms produces sufficient heat to enhance dissolution of a powdered medication. Option A: Shaking the vial vigorously can break down the medication and alter its pharmacologic action. Option C: Inverting the vial or leaving it alone does not ensure thorough homogenization of the powder and the solvent. Option D: Use aseptic technique to draw up the specified amount of diluent and inject it into the medication vial. Roll the vial in the hands to dissolve all the powder (emphasize not to shake the vial).
Nurses and other healthcare providers often have difficulty helping a terminally ill patient through the necessary stages leading to acceptance of death. Which of the following strategies is most helpful to the nurse in achieving this goal:
According to thanatologists, reflecting on the significance of death helps to reduce the fear of death and enables the health care provider to better understand the terminally ill patient’s feelings. It also helps to overcome the belief that medical and nursing measures have failed, when a patient cannot be cured. Thanatology is the science and study of death and dying from multiple perspectives—medical, physical, psychological, spiritual, ethical, and more. Option A: Professionals in a wide range of disciplines use thanatology to inform their work, from doctors and coroners to hospice workers and grief counselors. There also are thanatology specialists who focus on a specific aspect of the dying process or work directly with people facing their own death or that of loved ones. Option B: A wide variety of professionals incorporate thanatology into their work. How they do so depends on what they need to know about the dying process. For example, a medical examiner, coroner, doctor, nurse, or other medical practitioners might study thanatology to better understand the physical process of death—what happens to the body during death as well as immediately after. Option D: Thanatology also examines attitudes toward death, the meaning and behaviors of bereavement and grief, and the moral and ethical questions of euthanasia, organ transplants, and life support.
An autoclave is used to sterilize hospital supplies because:
An autoclave, an apparatus that sterilizes equipment by means of high-temperature pressurized steam, is used because it can destroy all forms of microorganisms, including spores. Autoclaves operate at high temperature and pressure in order to kill microorganisms and spores. They are used to decontaminate certain biological waste and sterilize media, instruments, and labware. Option A: Autoclaves provide a physical method for disinfection and sterilization. They work with a combination of steam, pressure, and time. Autoclaves operate at high temperature and pressure in order to kill microorganisms and spores. They are used to decontaminate certain biological waste and sterilize media, instruments and lab ware. Regulated medical waste that might contain bacteria, viruses and other biological material are recommended to be inactivated by autoclaving before disposal. Option B: The rate of exhaust will depend upon the nature of the load. Dry material can be treated in a fast exhaust cycle, while liquids and biological waste require slow exhaust to prevent boiling over of superheated liquids. Option C: To be effective, the autoclave must reach and maintain a temperature of 121° C for at least 30 minutes by using saturated steam under at least 15 psi of pressure. Increased cycle time may be necessary depending upon the make-up and volume of the load.
The most important nursing intervention to correct skin dryness is:
Dry skin will eventually crack, ranking the patient more prone to infection. To prevent this, the nurse should provide adequate hydration through fluid intake, use non irritating soaps or no soap when bathing the patient, and lubricate the patient’s skin with lotion. In most cases, dry skin responds well to lifestyle measures, such as using moisturizers and avoiding long, hot showers and baths. Moisturizers provide a seal over the skin to keep water from escaping. Apply moisturizer several times a day and after bathing. Option B: The attending physician and dietitian may be consulted for treatment, but home-laundered items usually are not necessary. Natural fibers, such as cotton and silk, allow the skin to breathe. But wool, although natural, can irritate even normal skin. Wash clothes with detergents without dyes or perfumes, both of which can irritate the skin. Option C: Increasing fat intake is unnecessary. Hot, dry, indoor air can parch sensitive skin and worsen itching and flaking. A portable home humidifier or one attached to the furnace adds moisture to the air inside the home. Be sure to keep the humidifier clean. It’s best to use cleansing creams or gentle skin cleansers and bath or shower gels with added moisturizers. Choose mild soaps that have added oils and fats. Avoid deodorant and antibacterial detergents, fragrance, and alcohol. Option D: Bathing may be limited but need not be avoided entirely. Long showers or baths and hot water remove oils from your skin. Limit your bath or shower to five to 10 minutes and use warm, not hot, water.
The nurse is teaching a patient to prepare a syringe with 40 units of U-100 NPH insulin for self-injection. The patient’s first priority concerning self-injection in this situation is to:
When the nurse teaches the patient to prepare an insulin injection, the patient’s first priority is to validate the dose accuracy. The next steps are to select the site, assess the site, and clean the site with alcohol before injecting the insulin. Option A: The site the client chooses for the injection should be clean and dry. If the skin is visibly dirty, clean it with soap and water. DO NOT use an alcohol wipe on the injection site. Choose where to give the injection. Keep a chart of places that have been used, so the client does not inject the insulin in the same place all the time. Ask the doctor for a chart. Option B: The insulin needs to go into the fat layer under the skin. If the skin tissues are thicker, the client may be able to inject straight up and down (90º angle). Check with the provider before doing this. Option D: To give an insulin injection, the client needs to fill the right syringe with the right amount of medicine, decide where to give the injection, and know how to give the injection.
Nursing interventions that can help the patient to relax and sleep restfully include all of the following except:
Napping in the afternoon is not conducive to nighttime sleeping. There are few considerations about naps. For example, a short daytime nap of 15-30 minutes can be restorative for elders and will not interfere with nighttime sleep. On the other hand, insomniacs are cautioned to avoid naps. Quiet music, watching television, reading, and massage usually will relax the patient, helping him to fall asleep. Option B: For patients in the hospital, factors that can prevent sound sleep include staff noise during a shift, telephones and call lights, doors, paging systems, and even carts wheeled through corridors. Safety and comfort can be promoted by raising side rails, placing the bed in a low position, and using night-lights. Option C: For individuals who are unable to sleep, they must get out of bed and spend some time in another room. There, they can start some relaxing activities like reading and listening to soft music. They should continue the activity till they feel drowsy. Option D: Rituals can be supported in institutionalized patients by assisting them with a hand and face wash, massage, pillow plumping, and even talking about today’s accomplishments and enjoyable events. These can promote relaxation and peace of mind.
A terminally ill patient usually experiences all of the following feelings during the anger stage except:
Numbness is typical of the depression stage, when the patient feels a great sense of loss. Depression is perhaps the most immediately understandable of Kubler-Ross’s stages and patients experience it with unsurprising symptoms such as sadness, fatigue, and anhedonia. Spending time in the first three stages is potentially an unconscious effort to protect oneself from this emotional pain, and, while the patient’s actions may potentially be easier to understand, they may be more jarring in juxtaposition to behaviors arising from the first three stages. Option A: The anger stage includes such feelings as rage, envy, resentment, and the patient’s questioning “Why me?” Anger, as Kubler-Ross pointed out, is commonly experienced and expressed by patients as they concede the reality of a terminal illness. It may be directed, as with blame of medical providers for inadequately preventing the illness, of family members for contributing to risks of not being sufficiently supportive, or of spiritual providers or higher powers for the diagnosis’ injustice. Option B: Patients may feel sadness, anger, or confusion. They are experiencing the pain of loss. The task is completed as the patient begins to feel “normal” again. Option D: The anger may also be generalized and undirected, manifesting as a shorter temper or a loss of patience. Recognizing anger as a natural response can help health care providers and loved-ones to tolerate what might otherwise feel like hurtful accusations, though they must take care not to disregard criticism that may be warranted by attributing them solely to an emotional stage.
To institute appropriate isolation precautions, the nurse must first know the:
Before instituting isolation precaution, the nurse must first determine the organism’s mode of transmission. For example, an organism transmitted through nasal secretions requires that the patient be kept in respiratory isolation, which involves keeping the patient in a private room with the door closed and wearing a mask, a gown, and gloves when coming in direct contact with the patient. Option B: The organism’s Gram-staining characteristics reveal whether the organism is gram-negative or gram-positive, an important criterion in the physician’s choice for drug therapy and the nurse’s development of an effective plan of care. Option C: The nurse also needs to know whether the organism is susceptible to antibiotics, but this could take several days to determine; if she waits for the results before instituting isolation precautions, the organism could be transmitted in the meantime. Option D: The patient’s susceptibility to the organism has already been established. The nurse would not be instituting isolation precautions for a non-infected patient.
Restraints can be used for all of the following purposes except to:
By restricting a patient’s movements, restraints may increase stress and lead to confusion, rather than prevent it. Restraints in a medical setting are devices that limit a patient’s movement. Restraints can help keep a person from getting hurt or doing harm to others, including their caregivers. They are used as a last resort. The other choices are valid reasons for using restraints. Option A: Sometimes hospital patients who are confused need restraints so that they do not remove catheters and tubes that give them medicine and fluids. A nurse who has special training in using restraints can begin to use them. A doctor or another provider must also be told restraints are being used. The doctor or other provider must then sign a form to allow the continued use of restraints. Option B: Restraints may be used to keep a person in proper position and prevent movement or falling during surgery or while on a stretcher. Patients who are restrained also need to have their blood flow checked to make sure the restraints are not cutting off their blood flow. They also need to be watched carefully so that the restraints can be removed as soon as the situation is safe. Option C: Restraints can also be used to control or prevent harmful behavior or get out of bed, fall, and hurt themselves. Restraints should not cause harm or be used as punishment. Health care providers should first try other methods to control a patient and ensure safety. Restraints should be used only as a last choice.
The natural sedative in meat and milk products (especially warm milk) that can help induce sleep is:
Tryptophan is a natural sedative; flurazepam (Dalmane), temazepam (Restoril), and methotrimeprazine (Levoprome) are hypnotic sedatives. Protein foods such as milk and milk products contain the sleep-inducing amino acid tryptophan. Having warm milk at bedtime is a good way to work towards reaching the recommended number of servings of Milk and Alternatives each day, and can be a comforting way to unwind. Tryptophan is an amino acid that promotes sleep and is found in small amounts in all protein foods. It is a precursor to the sleep-inducing compounds serotonin (a neurotransmitter), and melatonin (a hormone which also acts as a neurotransmitter). Option A: Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It produces a metabolite with a long half-life, which may stay in the bloodstream for days. Option B: Temazepam is used on a short-term basis to treat insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep). Temazepam is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain to allow sleep. Option C: Levomepromazine (also known as methotrimeprazine) is used to treat severe mental/mood disorders (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder). It works by helping to restore certain natural substances in the brain. Levomepromazine belongs to a class of drugs known as phenothiazines. It can help the client to think clearly and take part in everyday life. It is also used to treat anxiety disorders, a certain sleep problem (insomnia), nausea/vomiting, and pain. This medication has calming, relaxing, and pain-relieving effects.
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